Articles Posted in the " FAQs on Electro-Optic Modulators: Conoptics.com " Category

  • What is the extinction ratio?

    The extinction ratio of an amplitude modulator is the ratio between the optical power at maximum and minimum transmission. Extinction ratios are dependent on the crystal employed. Conoptics offers three types of crystals for […]


  • Conoptics Amplitude Modulators

    Conoptics amplitude modulators consist of an electro-optic modulator which includes an output polarizer. Internally the crystals are aligned along their x-axis. If the input polarization is oriented at 45° to the crystal axes, the […]



  • Do you offer Resonant Tank Circuits?

    Conoptics offers Resonant Tank Circuits (7:1 Step-Up) out to 50MHz for our resonant phase and amplitude modulators. The benefit of this package allows our customers to incorporate in-expensive amplifiers to drive the tank circuits […]


  • How do I choose a modulator?

    Choosing a modulator and modulation system requires and analysis of your requirements and then matching these requirements to the function and capabilities of our electro-optic modulator and modulation systems (including amplifiers). Our standard systems […]




  • How much insertion loss can I expect?

    Conoptics conservatively estimates transmission at 85%. Insertion loss is typically due to absorption, crystal cut and AR coatings. Generally speaking we expect a small loss per interface (windows and crystals). Also note that the […]


  • Does Conoptics offer an antireflection coating?

    Conoptics does incorporate AR coatings on optics, windows and specific crystals used with our products. Our standard coating ranges are 400nm-to-80nm (Visible), 700nm-to-1200nm (NIR) and 1000nm-to-2000nm(IR). Conoptics also offers UV and DUV and V-Coat […]