Frequently Asked Questions
Electro-Optic Modulators:

What is the extinction ratio?

By | April 6th, 2013|FAQs on Electro-Optic Modulators: Conoptics.com|

The extinction ratio of an amplitude modulator is the ratio between the optical power at maximum and minimum transmission. Extinction ratios are dependent on the crystal employed. Conoptics offers three types of crystals for use in the UV, V, NIR and IR. Extinction ratios vary by model and are typically 500:1. In addition, Conoptics offers [...]

Comments Off on What is the extinction ratio?

Conoptics Amplitude Modulators

By | April 6th, 2013|FAQs on Electro-Optic Modulators: Conoptics.com|

Conoptics amplitude modulators consist of an electro-optic modulator which includes an output polarizer. Internally the crystals are aligned along their x-axis. If the input polarization is oriented at 45° to the crystal axes, the applied voltage will produce a variable phase delay between the ordinary and extraordinary field components, simulating a voltage-tunable wave-plate. The modulation [...]

Comments Off on Conoptics Amplitude Modulators

Can I use your phase modulator as an amplitude modulator?

By | April 6th, 2013|FAQs on Electro-Optic Modulators: Conoptics.com|

Our phase modulators cannot be used as amplitude/intensity modulators, voltage variable wave-plates or polarization rotators. There are a number of reasons for this limitation. Our Phase Modulators are configured using the same crystal orientation. The input polarizations aligned along the induced ray. In addition, our amplitude modulators use at least two crystals which are aligned [...]

Comments Off on Can I use your phase modulator as an amplitude modulator?

Do you offer Resonant Tank Circuits?

By | April 6th, 2013|FAQs on Electro-Optic Modulators: Conoptics.com|

Conoptics offers Resonant Tank Circuits (7:1 Step-Up) out to 50MHz for our resonant phase and amplitude modulators. The benefit of this package allows our customers to incorporate in-expensive amplifiers to drive the tank circuits meeting the voltage requirements for their application.

Comments Off on Do you offer Resonant Tank Circuits?

How do I choose a modulator?

By | April 6th, 2013|FAQs on Electro-Optic Modulators: Conoptics.com|

Choosing a modulator and modulation system requires and analysis of your requirements and then matching these requirements to the function and capabilities of our electro-optic modulator and modulation systems (including amplifiers). Our standard systems are available for intensity and or phase modulation with bandwidths out to 800MHz. A complete system includes matching an Electro-Optic Modulator [...]

Comments Off on How do I choose a modulator?

How do I align the beam through your modulator?

By | April 6th, 2013|FAQs on Electro-Optic Modulators: Conoptics.com|

To align the modulator, Conoptics has developed a Model 103 Alignment Tool. In order to minimize clipping through the modulator, a good rule of thumb is that the beam diameter should be less than one-third the aperture size. Conoptics has developed a step-by-step user guide for alignment provided with each sale or can be downloaded [...]

Comments Off on How do I align the beam through your modulator?

How much insertion loss can I expect?

By | April 6th, 2013|FAQs on Electro-Optic Modulators: Conoptics.com|

Conoptics conservatively estimates transmission at 85%. Insertion loss is typically due to absorption, crystal cut and AR coatings. Generally speaking we expect a small loss per interface (windows and crystals). Also note that the shorter devices which use one or two crystals will have a slightly higher transmission than the four crystal devices. If you [...]

Comments Off on How much insertion loss can I expect?

Does Conoptics offer an antireflection coating?

By | April 6th, 2013|FAQs on Electro-Optic Modulators: Conoptics.com|

Conoptics does incorporate AR coatings on optics, windows and specific crystals used with our products. Our standard coating ranges are 400nm-to-80nm (Visible), 700nm-to-1200nm (NIR) and 1000nm-to-2000nm(IR). Conoptics also offers UV and DUV and V-Coat options at additional charge.

Comments Off on Does Conoptics offer an antireflection coating?

How does a piezo resonance affect a modulator’s performance?

By | April 6th, 2013|FAQs on Electro-Optic Modulators: Conoptics.com|

The piezo-electric resonances are a ringing effect caused by applying electrical current to crystals. Because all electro-optic crystals are also piezoelectric, this effect occurs at specific frequencies most common 1-100MHz. Conoptics offers remedies to counter the most common piezo-electic resonances.

Comments Off on How does a piezo resonance affect a modulator’s performance?