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Frequently Asked Questions
Electro-Optic Modulators:

What’s the difference between a resonant modulator and a broadband modulator?

A resonant modulator operates at a specified frequency while a broadband modulator can operate over a wide frequency range.

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What types of crystals are used

Conoptics utilizes a number of different crystals in our electro-optic modulators. Crystal selection is dependent on wavelength, bandwidth and other requirements. Typical crystals are ADP (Ammonium Dihydorgen Phosphate), KD*P (Deuterated Potassium Phosphate), LTA (Lithium Tantalate) and Lithium Niobate.

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Does Conoptics Offers Fiber EOM’s or Fiber Connect Option?

Conoptics is currently engineering a solution to interface input and output fibers to our pockel cells. By the end of 2011 we plan on releasing this option.

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What is a Transverse Field Modulator

Conoptics modulators are designed as Transverse Field Modulators (TFM). The electrical field is perpendicular to the light path. The TFM's are temperature compensated by having pairs of crystals aligned such that what propagates down the fast axis in the first crystal propagates down the slow axis in the second crystal. The ½ wave voltage (minimum [...]

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How do I allow for two rays transmit through a Pockel Cell?

For two rays to propagate through the pockel cell, the input polarization must be aligned such that it bisects the crystal axis. The input polarization should be set to 45° to the mechanical sides of the crystals.

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Overview: Pockel Cells

Conoptics offers a complete line of Electro-Optic modulators that employ the Pockels Effect (linear electro-optics effect). The Pockels Effect is a change in phase of the induced ordinary ray, relative to the extraordinary ray when an electric field is applied. This change in phase makes the crystals a voltage variable wave plate, such that the [...]

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