Conoptics modulators are designed as Transverse Field Modulators (TFM). The electrical field is perpendicular to the light path. The TFM’s are temperature compensated by having pairs of crystals aligned such that what propagates down the fast axis in the first crystal propagates down the slow axis in the second crystal. The ½ wave voltage (minimum to maximum transmission) is a function of the crystals path length and crystal aperture size. Conoptics modulators offer apertures sizes compatible with most lasers so beam forming optics are typically not required.